Hattie McDaniel, born on June 10, 1893, was an African-American actress whose talent and determination shattered racial barriers in Hollywood.
Best known for her ground-breaking role as Mammy in the 1939 film “Gone with the Wind,” McDaniel became the first African-American to win an Academy Award.
Beyond her acting career, McDaniel made significant contributions to civil rights and paved the way for future generations of black performers.
In this article, we delve into the remarkable life and legacy of Hattie McDaniel, highlighting her achievements, challenges, and enduring impact on the entertainment industry and society at large.
Hattie McDaniel’s journey from a modest upbringing to becoming an iconic figure in the film industry is a testament to her talent, resilience, and trailblazing spirit.
Born in Wichita, Kansas, McDaniel grew up in a family of entertainers. Her father, Henry McDaniel, served as a minister, while her mother, Susan Holbert, was a talented singer and songwriter. Inspired by her family’s artistic background, McDaniel developed a passion for performing at an early age.
McDaniel’s career beginnings were marked by her move to Los Angeles, a city that offered greater opportunities for black performers.
She initially found success as a singer and comedian in vaudeville theaters and on radio shows. Her undeniable talent and engaging stage presence captured the attention of audiences, earning her recognition as one of the leading African-American entertainers of her time.
However, it was in the film industry that Hattie McDaniel would leave an indelible mark. Despite the limited roles available to black actors during the era of segregation, McDaniel’s breakthrough came with her portrayal of Mammy, the loyal house servant, in the epic film “Gone with the Wind.”
This historic role challenged racial stereotypes and showcased McDaniel’s exceptional acting abilities. Her performance not only garnered critical acclaim but also made her the first African-American to receive an Academy Award.
Beyond her ground-breaking achievements in the entertainment industry, Hattie McDaniel was a prominent figure in the civil rights movement.
She used her platform to advocate for equal rights and actively participated in organizations dedicated to fighting racial discrimination.
Her influence extended beyond her on-screen presence, as she paved the way for future generations of black actors, breaking down barriers and inspiring change within the industry.
In this comprehensive article, we delve into the remarkable life and legacy of Hattie McDaniel, exploring her impact on civil rights, her enduring contributions to the film industry, and the complexities she faced as a black actress in Hollywood.
By examining her achievements, challenges, and enduring cultural significance, we pay tribute to a trailblazer who left an indelible mark on the history of American cinema and beyond.
The Early Life of Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel, the youngest of 13 children, was born in 1893 in Wichita, Kansas. Her parents, Susan Holbert and Henry McDaniel, were formerly enslaved individuals.
Henry McDaniel had fought in the Civil War with the 122nd United States Colored Troops. Hattie’s mother, Susan, was a gospel music singer, and her father’s military service played a significant role in shaping her upbringing.
In 1900, the McDaniel family relocated to Fort Collins, Colorado, before settling in Denver, Colorado. Hattie attended Denver East High School from 1908 to 1910, where she actively participated in various activities.
In 1908, she even entered a contest sponsored by the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, showcasing her talent by reciting “Convict Joe” and claiming first place in the competition.
Notably, Hattie McDaniel was not the only talented individual in her family. Her brother, Sam McDaniel, had a role as a butler in the 1948 Three Stooges’ short film titled “Heavenly Daze.”
Additionally, her sister, Etta McDaniel, also pursued a career in acting, making the entertainment industry a shared passion within their family.
These early experiences and family connections played a formative role in shaping Hattie McDaniel’s path toward becoming a renowned actress and pioneer in the film industry.
Her upbringing, coupled with her natural talent and determination, laid the foundation for her exceptional career and lasting contributions to the world of entertainment.
Personal life of Hattie McDaniel
Hattie McDaniel’s personal life was marked by several marriages, each with its own joys and challenges.
Her first marriage was to Howard Hickman on January 19, 1911, in Denver, Colorado. Sadly, Hickman passed away in 1915, leaving McDaniel a widow at a young age.
Her second husband, George Langford, entered her life while her career was on the rise. However, their time together was cut short when Langford tragically died from a gunshot wound in January 1925. The details surrounding his death remain a subject of speculation.
On March 21, 1941, McDaniel married James Lloyd Crawford, a real estate salesman, in Tucson, Arizona.
During this time, McDaniel shared news of her pregnancy with gossip columnist Hedda Hopper in 1945, expressing her excitement and making preparations for the arrival of her child.
Unfortunately, McDaniel experienced a false pregnancy, which led to deep sadness and depression. She never had any biological children.
In 1945, after four and a half years of marriage, she divorced Crawford, citing his jealousy of her successful career as a contributing factor.
McDaniel’s next marriage was to Larry Williams, an interior decorator, on June 11, 1949, in Yuma, Arizona. However, their relationship was short-lived, as they divorced in 1950.
During the divorce proceedings, McDaniel tearfully testified about the difficulties she faced with Williams, who attempted to create conflicts among the cast of her radio show and interfered with her work.
The emotional toll of their relationship affected McDaniel’s sleep and ability to focus on her acting responsibilities.
Throughout her personal ups and downs, Hattie McDaniel’s dedication to her craft and resilience in the face of adversity remained unwavering.
Despite not having any children of her own, her legacy continues to inspire generations of artists and performers, leaving an indelible mark on the entertainment industry and beyond.
During World War II, Hattie McDaniel played a significant role in supporting the troops as the chairman of the Negro Division of the Hollywood Victory Committee.
Despite racial segregation in the US military, McDaniel took it upon herself to provide entertainment for black soldiers stationed at military bases.
Due to the discriminatory policies, black entertainers were not allowed to serve on white entertainment committees, so McDaniel rallied the help of her friend, actor Leigh Whipper, and other black entertainers to form her own committee.
McDaniel’s dedication to the cause led her to make numerous personal appearances at military hospitals, organize parties, and perform at United Service Organizations (USO) shows and war bond rallies.
These efforts aimed to raise funds for the war and support the soldiers on behalf of the Victory Committee.
Notably, Bette Davis, the only white member of McDaniel’s acting troupe, performed for black regiments, demonstrating the camaraderie and unity among entertainers.
In addition to her work with the Hollywood Victory Committee, McDaniel was also a member of the American Women’s Voluntary Services, further showcasing her commitment to serving her community and making a positive impact.
She joined actor Clarence Muse, a pioneering black member of the Screen Actors Guild, in a radio broadcast on NBC to raise funds for Red Cross relief programs, specifically aiding Americans affected by devastating floods.
Throughout her career and personal life, McDaniel gained a reputation for her generosity and willingness to lend money to friends and strangers in need.
Her compassion and selflessness extended beyond her performances on screen, exemplifying her character and genuine concern for others.
Hattie McDaniel’s contributions during World War II not only entertained and uplifted the troops but also challenged racial barriers and demonstrated the power of art to bring people together in times of hardship.
Her unwavering commitment to supporting her fellow Americans and her dedication to charitable causes left an enduring legacy that goes beyond her acclaimed acting career.
Death of Hattie McDaniel
After facing health struggles, Hattie McDaniel entered the hospital in August 1950 due to a heart ailment.
Although she was released in October to recover at home, news reports in January 1951 indicated that she had suffered a mild stroke.
Tragically, McDaniel’s battle with illness came to an end when she passed away on October 26, 1952, in the hospital of the Motion Picture House in Woodland Hills, California.
Her passing deeply impacted the industry and her adoring fans, as thousands of mourners turned out to pay their respects and celebrate her remarkable life and achievements.
McDaniel had expressed her desire to be laid to rest in Hollywood Cemetery. However, due to the cemetery’s whites-only policy at the time, an alternative arrangement had to be made.
As a result, she was buried in Rosedale Cemetery, which was her second choice. In 1999, Hollywood Cemetery extended an offer to have McDaniel re-interred there, but her family declined the offer.
Instead, a cenotaph was erected in Hollywood Cemetery overlooking the lake, serving as a memorial to honor her legacy.
Today, it stands as one of Hollywood’s most popular tourist attractions, commemorating the life and contributions of this extraordinary actress.
In her last will and testament dated December 1951, McDaniel bequeathed her cherished Oscar to Howard University, a historically black institution.
This decision was influenced by the heartfelt appreciation she had received from the university’s students, who had honored her with a luncheon after her historic Oscar win.
Despite her success as an actress, McDaniel’s estate was valued at less than $10,000 upon her death, and the IRS claimed a tax debt exceeding that amount. Consequently, the probate court ordered the sale of all her assets, including her Oscar, to settle her debts.
Years later, the Oscar that held immense sentimental value to McDaniel found its way to Howard University. It was reportedly displayed in a glass case within the university’s drama department.
However, at some point during the 1960s or 1970s, Oscar went missing from the university and has never been recovered.
The disappearance of this cherished award remains a mystery, leaving a void in the tangible representation of McDaniel’s historic achievement.
Although McDaniel faced financial challenges and her Oscar has been lost, her impact on the entertainment industry and her lasting legacy as a trailblazing African American actress continue to resonate.
Her contributions to film and the relentless pursuit of her dreams serve as an inspiration for future generations, reminding us of the importance of representation, equality, and the enduring power of talent and perseverance.