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Nigeria is officially known as the Federal Republic of Nigeria, (Country, western Africa). Area 356,669 sq miles(923,768 sq km). Population: 217,376,000 (2022 est.) Capital: Abuja. Nigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups, including Fulani, Igbo, Yoruba, etc. Languages: English (official).
Religions: Christianity(protestant, other Christians, Roman Catholic), Islam, traditional beliefs. Currency: Naira.

Nigeria has within it plateaus and the lowlands between them. Nigeria has a developing mixed economy that is majorly based on petroleum production and agriculture, the manufacturing industry has also experienced growth exponentially in recent times. Trade, transportation, and services employ more than two-fifths (2/5) of the workforce. Nigeria is a federal republic with two (2) legislative bodies; Its head of state and government is the president. Nigeria is a country with diverse people, cultures, languages, and religions. The country came into being long before its independence as sources say that there have been settlements of smaller tribes across the land with their practices and tradition even before it was officially birthed in 1914.


The history of Nigeria goes as far back as 1100 BC when different occupants of the land were trading within Africa and the middle east. Some of the earliest occupants of the land that is now known as Nigeria are the kingdom of NRI, the Benin kingdom, and the Oyo Empire.
From the 15th Century European traders came to the shores of Nigeria to first buy goods e.g Cocoa, Palm kernels, Rubber, e.t.c shortly after which the human slave trade began, and that shaped the history of present-day Nigeria. The natives were forcefully trafficked to the west indies and Europe to work in Farms and factories.

Although some notable people fought to defend the people, only little could be done as they were overpowered by the Gunboats. Reliable sources have it that Portuguese roman catholic priests that accompanied the traders to the coast of west Africa, introduced Christianity to the Edo empire. numerous churches were built to serve the native Edo people and new converts.


The first church in Nigeria was commissioned by the Church of England, the Church Missionary Society(CMS). The CMS successfully promoted Africans to reputable positions in the mission field. For example Samuel Ajayi Crowther, a Yoruba slave was the first African Bishop of the Niger.

In 1900 the British government took control of the Northern and southern protectorates of Nigeria, both of which received administration from the colonial office at Whitehall. The seven men who governed the 2 protectorates in Nigeria between 1900–1914 were: Henry McCallum, William MacGregor, Walter Egerton, Ralph Moor, Percy Girouard, Hesketh Bell, and Frederick Lugard.

The first flag of Nigeria from 1914–1960
The first flag of Nigeria, 1914–1960


Nigeria gained its independence from the British government on the1st of October 1960 to become a republic exactly three(3) years later, on October 1, 1963. The administration of the government of Nigeria experienced military rule for a total of thirty-three(33) years between 1966 and 1999 before switching fully to a democratic system of government having Olusegun Obasanjo as its president from 1999–2007, succeeded by Umaru Musa Yar’Adua who passed on before the end of his first term tenure in 2010.

He was succeeded by his vice Goodluck Jonathan who ruled the country between 2010–2015. Muhammadu Buhari won the 2015 election and has been the president to date, serving two terms. The democracy that has been practiced in Nigeria has seen the election of so many notable people into office to serve and protect the interest of the Nigerians.

The current flag of Nigeria, 1960 to date.

Nigeria as we have it today is an independent Nation still standing. The foundation of Nigeria is its history. It is true that the strength of the foundation determines the life of the building.

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